If we are able to resolve things straight away and to your satisfaction, we will send you a short letter of confirmation. Where we need to look into the matter in more detail we’ll send you an acknowledgement letter within five working days. This will explain what will happen next and when you can expect to hear from us again. When we’ve completed our investigation, we’ll send you a full written response. We aim to answer all complaints about a payment service within 15 calendar days. If there are exceptional circumstances beyond our control we may take up to 35 calendar days.
Advances in the Forensic Analysis and Dating of Writing Ink
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The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries (payments) made of blue ballpoint pen ink. By definition, a cash book has to be written by hand and the entries have to be made daily.
Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Under a Creative Commons license open access Abstract Although degradation of iron gall ink containing paper has been scientifically studied for almost years, we still do not have a good understanding of the kinetics of the process. While many studies focussed on model samples to avoid the inhomogeneity of real historic samples or the need for sampling, this research was conducted on a selection of real documents. The analytical methods were optimised such that sample consumption was minimised and errors and uncertainties were evaluated.
The results show that the rate of degradation, measured as change in the degree of polymerisation of cellulose in paper beneath ink, can be described in Arrhenius terms, and that the apparent activation energy for the process depends on the moisture content in the material. The variation is consistent with the process of hydrolysis becoming less prominent at lower moisture content values, although the results indicate that hydrolytic degradation predominates during natural ink-induced degradation.
In the context of the historic samples used in the study, the presence of ink accelerated the degradation of paper by a constant factor of 1. This indicates that a dose-response function could be developed for ink-induced degradation of paper. Previous article in issue.
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Antique Ink Bottles An ink bottle was made of glass and typically sat on a desk. The writer would dip the pen or quill into the bottle to put more ink on the pen. Because they set on a desk, ink bottles were often decorative. Ink wells as opposed to “ink bottles” were typically metal with a glass insert, often ornate, and sat on a desk.
The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks (as well as other materials used to produce the document – paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.) were commercially available on or prior to the date appearing on the document.
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DATINK pilot study: an effective methodology for ballpoint pen ink dating in questioned documents.
To decode Martha Ballard’s diary, you will need to understand how she structured her pages, how she recorded the date, and how she used abbreviations and marginalia. Rollover the headings below to see fragments decoded. Read more about these and other aspects of Martha’s diary her ink, her pen, the layout of the diary, etc. She recorded not only the day of the month, but also the day of the week. Sunday, the first day in the week, is identified with one of the letters from A to G, corresponding to the”dominical letters” used in almanacs “dies dominica” is Latin for Sunday.
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Under an Elsevier user license open access Abstract Attenuated total reflectance ATR Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy associated to linear discriminant analysis LDA was employed to perform classification of blue pen ink according to types and brands, in a nondestructive way. To build a representative data set, blue pens of 3 types, namely ballpoint 5 brands , roller ball 2 brands and gel 3 brands were purchased from local dealers.
Ten different pens, representing the best seller of each brand, were purchased, making a total of pens. Three types of paper were employed: LDA models were built using the blue pen ink spectra obtained from paper 1. Three test sets were employed using the blue pen ink spectra obtained from papers 1, 2 and 3, in order to evaluate the influence of the paper on the predictions.
Using SW, the rate achieved was The method developed was able to differentiate successfully all brands of pen used on each type of paper and could be a helpful tool for detection and confirmation of counterfeits in documents of legal importance. Previous article in issue.
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Denser materials like oak flooring will generally show sharper lines of demarcation than polymer e. The absence of a carpet pad often leads to sharper lines. Irregular patterns are common in situations of post flashover conditions, long extinguishing times, or building collapse. These patterns may result from the effects of hot gases, flaming and smoldering debris, melted plastics, or ignitable liquids.
ink dating experts. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.
Within ten years he had enlarged the factory three times, built a china works, taken on the largest and most gifted group of artists in the Potteries, and developed for Doulton a reputation for craftsmanship and artistry still identified with Royal Doulton today. There follows a selection of the backstamps most commonly used on Doulton Burslem wares, and some further hints on dating.
The information is taken by permission from “The Doulton Burslem Wares” by Desmond Eyles, a compulsory work of reference for any collector of Doulton wares see back page. The reference numbers for the Doulton Burslem marks have been prefixed by the letter ‘B’ to distinguish them from those also numbered 1 and up in the list of Lambeth marks given in The Doulton Lambeth Wares. Several of these were adopted after by Doulton and remained in use for about twenty years.
The following are two typical examples found on the patterns Rouen and Kew. Various other pattern names will be found. The coronet on B. The mark continued in use until This mark continued in use until It appears to have been used instead of B. Occasionally found also between and along with B. This mark was in general use at Burslem between and On smaller wares, only the bottom half of this mark i.
The questioned document was a list of 29 pages containing a consecutive handwritten numbering and dated entries payments made of blue ballpoint pen ink. By definition, a cash book has to be written by hand and the entries have to be made daily. The questioned document was suspected to have been written within a short period e. The document lab was asked to determine the date of the entries of the questioned list. On one hand, we were asked, if the cash book had been kept on account consecutively during the period of one year, and on the other hand, the judges were interested in knowing, if the document could have been written in and back dated to To answer these questions, the document was examined for latent elements by electrostatic detection device ESDA.
Illegal ink has roots dating alteration, as any more from a new ink pads are also are ink dating technique taking supplies and clear. Color red gel pen and design work of ink dating specialist document or ink comparisons no ink.
As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the ” This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key. A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy.
Additional reference materials outside of this website must often be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a “feel” for the history of the bottle in question. The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the early s to the mid th century. For the first time user of this site it is highly recommended that the following information be read prior to using the key below.
First this cautionary note: Bottle dating is not a precise science!